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Chronicle - The Development of War

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261-Armenia, (c.400), rallies to support its church. Years as a battleground between Romans & Persians, recently partitioned between them. In the larger Persian zone, Their Christianity & Nationalism became inseparable, preserving their alphabet, patriarch, & church.


317-(yr.885) Armenians on he fringes of the Moslem & Byzantine worlds have set up an independent state under Prince Ashot Bagraduni as governor for nearly 25 yrs. Under authority granted by the Caliph of Samarra. He was crowned King in he cathedral at the capital Bagadran, & was immediately recognized by he Byzantine emporer Basil, also an Armenian. This marked the end of direct domination by the Arabs, even though the Armenians would continue to pay them tribute.

342-(1071) Turks defeated armies of Byzantine emperor Romanus at Manzikert north of Lake Van. The Emperor was captured. This conclusive battle was the result of years of tension between Armenians & the Gk-speaking people of Asia Minor & Turkish nomads and their flocks filtering in from the east. Gradually the indigenous population was forced Westward, & the Govt.'s punitive action against the nomads was hindered by the great distance. Earlier in the year the new emperor raised a large army to drive the Turks out. Later he appealed to the Seljuk Sultan, Arp Aslan, who respnded in person with his own army. Meanwhile, internal squabbles & internal treachery weakened the Byzantine army. Then the Dukas family & their followers, political opponents of Romanus IV, deserted him just before the battle.

401-(1375) The Egyptians planned to release their prisoner Leon IV, the deposed King of Armenia taken at Gban, from Cairo into a life of exile & refuge in the Christian courts of Europe. However, Achot, n Armenian noble, who was captured at Gaban & converted to Islam while exiled in Cairo, believed that Achot's pleas would be politely rejected. However, ex-King Leon could arouse considerable sympathy for the way Egyptian forces destroyed & ransacked his country, including th once magnificent capital Sis.

607-(1638) Baghdad, lost to Persia, was retaken by Turks, although Yerevan, which fell to Persia in1636, was to remain a Persian possession.

1017-Aug. 1896) Seizure of the Ottoman Bank in Instanbul by Armenian revolutionaries led to a ferocious reaction by Ottoman authorities who massacred 3,000 Armenians, with many killings continued for three following days...The Armenians rose against Ottoman rule two yrs. earlier, hoping to attract attention & sympathy in Britain & elsewhere for their plight, as had happened to the Bulgarians when Ottoman massacres began. that uprising was put down with great brutality by Turkish troops & Kurdish irregulars. Britain took the lead In setting up an inquiry and pressured the sultans to introduce reforms, but nothing was done. Even worse, more massacres were launched. In October, Abdul Hamid, the Sultan, accepted a joint British-French-Russian plan while at the same time began killing about 200,000 Armenians throughout Anatolia.

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